Phylogenetic relationships of Bustards (Otididae, Aves) based on 3 mitochondrial genes: nd2, cytb and cox1
Tin Nwe Latt, Javier Gonzalez, Michael Wink Heidelberg University, Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364 , D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
We have studied 9 (out of 11) genera of Bustards: Otis, Eupodotis, Lophotis, Afrotis, Ardeotis, Lissotis,Tetrax, Neotis, and Chlamydotis and their phylogenetic relationships were inferred from nucleotide sequence data of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit (nd2), cytochrome b (cytb) and the cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene for (41- 43) representatives of 14 Bustards species.
Molecular markers were amplified from isolated DNA using specific PCR primers, PCR products were sequenced; sequences were aligned and evaluated by appropriate phylogeny programs such as MEGA 5.
The molecular phylogeny of bustards is inferred from nd2, cytb and cox1 genes using maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) analysis.
The genera Lophotis, Chlamydotis, Ardeotis, and Neotis are monophyletic. The genus Eupodotis is polyphyletic in all genes and therefore needs taxonomic revision.
Neotis ludwigii, Neotis denhami, Ardeotis arabs and Ardeotis kori form a clade in all reconstructions. Eupodotis senegalensis and Afrotis afraoides form sibling species.
Chlamydotis undulata has formerly been divided into three subspecies. According to DNA data, we can distinguish two distinct species. Chlamydotis macqueenii is located in Saudi Arabia, Sinai, Kazakhstan and Pakistan whereas Chlamydotis undulata has two subspecies Chlamydotis u. undulata (in North Africa) and Chlamydotis u. fuerteventurae (on Fuerteventura).
Otis tarda is one of the large sized bustards and thus similar to members of the genus Ardeotis.
Our study extends previous molecular phylogenies of Bustards by adding more genes and taxa. However, additional taxa and genes are needed to finally reconstruct the overall phylogeny of this bird family in detail.
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