MP35: Hemocompatibility of Titania Nanotube Arrays

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Barbara S. Smith (1), Laura Grissom (1), Sorachon Yoriya (2), Craig Grimes (2,3), and Ketul Popat (1,4)

1) School of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University
2) Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University
3) Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University
4) Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University

Hemocompatibility and inflammation remain a serious concern for the long-term success of blood-contacting biomaterials, eliciting a need for an improved understanding of the mechanisms behind blood/biomaterial interactions. Titanium and titanium-based alloys are the most widely used implantable biomaterials due to their mechanical strength, biocompatibility, non-toxicity, corrosion resistance, and ease of process-ability. These materials have been used extensively in orthopedic and dental implants. Studies have reported on the hemocompatibility of biomaterials, however, little is known about the hemocompatibility of nano-biomaterials. Recent studies have shown that material surfaces which mimic the natural physiological hierarchy of in vivo tissue may provide one possible solution for enhancing biomaterial integration. Thus, in this study, the hemocompatibility of titania nanotube arrays has been investigated in order to identify its potential application in implantable biomedical devices. These titania nanotube arrays can be fabricated using a simple anodization technique, and provide a favorable template for increased cellular functionality and localized drug delivery at a hierarchy similar to that of natural tissue. In addition, titania nanotube arrays have been shown to elicited minimal levels of monocyte activation and cytokine secretion, thus exhibiting a very low degree of immunogenicity. In this study, we have examined one of the earliest stages in the physiological immune response by considering the in vitro adsorption of key blood serum proteins, the adhesion and activation of platelets, and the clotting kinetics of whole blood on titania nanotube arrays (diameter: 70-90 nm, length 1 µm). Driven by a need for reduced material rejection, and thus obtaining an enhanced biocompatibility between the implant/body interactions, a study focusing on an improved understanding of the physiological response to nanomaterials, specifically hemocompatibility, is considered here.

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